Oral Pathology - Fibroma

Fibroma (fibroid)

Fibroma is a benign tumor composed of fibrous tissue (connective tissue).  The most common one is irritation fibroma, caused by trauma or local irritation. It can occur anywhere in the oral cavity; the most common site is on the buccal surface, along with the plane of occlusion between upper and lower teeth.  Fibroma has a well -  defined pink, smooth and round surface "lump."  Sometimes the surface can be ulcerated or hyperkeratotic due to repeated trauma or irritation.

Irritation Fibroma (traumatic fibroma, focal fibrous hyperplasia, oral polyp, or fibrous nodule) is a small, asymptomatic growth, tumor-like, occurs as a result of persistent long-standing irritation in the mouth or injury. The mass may be sessile or pedunculated, seldom exceed 1.5 cm in diameter.  Fibroma appears firm, immovable fibrous mass. Due to the raised surface, color may change from normal color to pale from decreased vascularity,  may have ulceration from recurring trauma, or whiteness from thickened surface keratin.

Once Fibroma is fully formed, it remains indefinitely. No treatment is necessary unless it is discomfort or for cosmetic concerns.  Surgical treatment is the only option.  Fibroma may recur if the source of irritation continues.  Oral fibroma does not develop into oral cancer.

Causes of Fibroma:
      1. Cheek or lip biting
      2. Irritation due to the rough surface of tooth or filling
      3. Dentures or partial denture irritation

Diagnosis of Fibroma is through history of trauma, biopsy and oral examination.